FactScore: Fine-grained Atomic Evaluation of Factual Precision in Long Form Text Generation

November 17, 2023


Evaluating the factuality of long-form text generated by large language models (LMs) is nontrivial because (1) generations often contain a mixture of supported and unsupported pieces of information, making binary judgments of quality inadequate, and (2) human evaluation is time-consuming and costly. In this paper, we introduce FACTSCORE, a new evaluation that breaks a generation into a series of atomic facts and computes the percentage of atomic facts supported by a reliable knowledge source. We conduct an extensive human evaluation to obtain FACTSCOREs of people biographies generated by several state-of-the-art commercial LMs—InstructGPT, ChatGPT, and the retrievalaugmented PerplexityAI—and report new analysis demonstrating the need for such a finegrained score (e.g., ChatGPT only achieves 58%). Since human evaluation is costly, we also introduce an automated model that estimates FACTSCORE using retrieval and a strong language model, with less than a 2% error rate. Finally, we use this automated metric to evaluate 6,500 generations from a new set of 13 recent LMs that would have cost $26K if evaluated by humans, with various findings: GPT-4 and ChatGPT are more factual than public models, and Vicuna and Alpaca are some of the best public models.

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Written by

Scott Yih

Luke Zettlemoyer

Mike Lewis

Hannaneh Hajishirzi

Kalpesh Krishna

Mohit Iyyer

Pang Wei Koh

Sewon Min

Xinxi Lyu



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